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AMA Style

The AMA (American Medical Association) style is most commonly used in the health sciences and medical fields. The following examples use the AMA Style 11th edition.

In-Text Citations

AMA Style uses superscript numbers for in-text citations.

  • Depending on the punctuation, the superscript may appear in different places:
    • After a period, comma, or mid-sentence word.
    • Before a colon or semi-colon.
  • For more than one reference, separate superscript numbers with a comma and no space. For example, use1,2 to cite both references used.
  • Do not put superscript after a number. For example, do not say “32 patients…” Instead, say “3 patients2…”
  • The number used in the superscript is the order of references used. Your first reference will always be 1, the second one will always be 2, and so on.  If you refer to the same source later in your paper, use the number first used to cite that specific source.
  • Unpublished materials, such as emails or phone conversations, are cited by parenthetical references instead of superscript since they cannot be retrieved by others. These citations should be placed before the punctuation and include information such as author, type of material, and date.


According to the AMA Manual of Style, this is the accepted format for articles submitted to both JAMA and the Archives.1 Similarly to the APA style, personal communications are put in parentheses as such2: “according to the library director (J. Kearns, oral communication, June 2018), AMA is used by several instructors at VTC…”

Reference List

References should be listed in the order they were used in the paper, NOT alphabetically. References in the reference list have to be retrievable information; this means anything that has not been accepted to be published and personal communications should not be included in this list. Instead, refer to the in-text citation guidelines for parenthetical citations.  

AMA Style | Reference List Citation Format Examples

Electronic articles

Cutitta KE, Self M, la Uz C. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) in teens: A guide for behavior change to manage symptoms. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2019; 42(2):283-286. doi:10.1111/pace.13571

Note: If no DOI is provided, include the access date followed by a stable URL.

Print articles

Oldroyd CK, Walters M, Dani K. Raised intracranial pressure secondary to vitamin overdose. Am J Med. 2016; 129(6): 9-10.

Print books

West JB. Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials. 8th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2008.


Mighten J. Children’s Respiratory Nursing. Wiley-Blackwell; 2013., cookie&db=nlebk&AN=477247&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=eds_prod. Accessed June 15, 2018.

Chapter in a book

Venkatesh SM, Doan SN, Barthel AL, Hofmann SG. Cultural and social influences on individual variation in emotional processes. In: Hayes SC, Hofmann SG. Beyond the DSM: Toward a Process-Based Alternative for Diagnosis and Mental Health Treatment. Context Press; 2020:137-163. Accessed December 14, 2022.

Websites with updated information & author

Van Noord M, Conklin J. Introduction to evidence-based practice. Duke University Medical Center Library & Archives website. Updated May 19, 2022. Accessed December 15, 2022.

Websites without updated information & author

Evidence-based practice. Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses website. Accessed December 15, 2022.


Goodman K, Simon K; and Simon and Goodman Picture Company for National Geographic Television & Film. The Incredible Human Body. DVD. Warner Home Video; 2002.

Online videos

American Nurses Association. Nursing Code of Ethics and Ethical Implications of Racism with Daniela Vargas. YouTube video. Uploaded October 6, 2022. Accessed December 15, 2022.


Gostin LO. JAMA Clinical Reviews. Clinical and legal dilemmas of providing reproductive health care after the Dobbs decision. November 1, 2022. Accessed December 15, 2022.