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How To Do Research

Integrating & Citing Information

Video Thumbnail: Synthesis
Video: Synthesis

As you research, you will often find conflicting information and opposing viewpoints. Your task is to synthesize, or make connections between, the sources you integrate into your paper. You must always include citations for your sources. This section includes overviews for the most common citations styles. When in doubt, double check with your instructor which style you should be using.

Integrating Sources

There are many ways to integrate sources into a paper, including direct quotes, paraphrasing, and summary.

Citing Sources

You must always cite the information you use in a paper or project. 

Citation Styles

Academic papers are written using standard formatting rules, or style guides. There are different style guides for different academic disciplines.

MLA Style

APA Style

Chicago Style

AMA Style

CSE Style

APSA Style

Citation Tools

Many tools are available to help you create and manage citations. These include tools in library databases, citation functions in software like Microsoft Word, and a standalone citation management software.